Chambwe is a village in Kasungu District, where our irrigation partners at Good Neighbours have been working with farmers to make use of the abundant water supply of the Bua River. A windmill is ideal in this area because it can pump water from the river far up the river bank to a storage tank, thereby extending the range of irrigation. Conventional buckets and treadle pumps are limited to the narrow band along the riverbank.
Last week we built the water tank and installed the windmill tower.
The slab: approximately 12 sq. meters.
The tank wall: 1.3 meters tall, giving a volume of about 15,000 liters.
Plastering the tank.
The tower foundation.
The tower in the clouds: 6 meters above ground.
Back to the tank for waterproofing.
And finally, the tank and the land below it to be irrigated.
As we continue to get ready for the irrigation season, we will be finishing out two windmills: one at Chifuchambewa, Salima, and the other at Chambwe, Kasungu.
In the previous post, we saw the tower and water tank slab at Chifuchambewa. Last week, we returned to install a few more components and to build the tank walls.
The windmill stands just at the edge of the wellspring. An adjustable lever is driven by wind, running the pump to the side, in the well. This allows us a stable place set the windmill tower, and for the mechanical advantage to be adjusted to suit our power requirements.
The farmers are hands-on in the process. Men mix cement, lay bricks, and plaster the wall. Pictured below, women ferry sand from the river to keep the work going without delays.
Finally, the windmill was raised and installed atop the tower. We will return after 2 weeks to install the blades and let it start pumping water. Meanwhile, farmers are preparing their land, and the tank is hardening.
This is what day 1 of a windmill set-up looks like. On the left, you will see the windmill tower. At right, AWP staff and volunteers mix cement for the slab of the water tank. At Chifuchambewa, farmers will use this windmill to irrigate up to 3 acres.
We were honoured by the visit of Anglican Bishop Given Gaula of Kondoa, Tanzania. He came to see if the work we do can help people in his diocese fight hunger and malnutrition. His diocese faces significant water stress as an obstacle to food production. However, irrigation and good farm practices could overcome the challenge.
We looked at the water pumps that AWP uses to see if they are appropriate to his diocese. He thought they could work because people are only using watering cans for their small gardens now.
Later we visited the Mziza farming club and demonstration garden. He was impressed by the quality of maize, and saw the importance of fertilizer in Malawi. In central Tanzania, farmers don't use fertilizer to grow maize. The bishop noted that in Malawi, without fertilizer or significant quantities of compost/manure, the maize crop will produce nothing.
His words of encouragement to our Mziza farming club were much appreciated. As a fellow African, he could speak directly to the importance of farming and the challenges they face in their lives.
We traveled through the city to get a perspective on development and culture in Lilongwe. The bishop was impressed by our good road system, the same roads that foreigners bemoan. We should not take even one small piece of development for granted. Having grown up in Tanzania, he was very interested in Malawian history. Before leaving for the airport, we took him to Kamuzu Banda's mausoleum to appreciate the progress Malawi has made since independence in 1964.
We look forward to the possibility of applying our experience to work in his area of Tanzania.
As recent blog posts have highlighted, the nursery is an integral part of a good vegetable farm. Many plants are too sensitive to be planted on their own in the field. These sensitive plants are planted first in a protected nursery. Usually, we plant onions, tomatoes, and leafy greens in the nursery, while hardy crops such as maize, beans, and squashes are seeded directly in the field.
The first step in establishing a nursery is to select a location near the water source. The site should be flat and on a higher ground to avoid flooding by rain. Then a fence is constructed to keep out domestic animals, pests, and thieves.
Next elevated beds (1 meter wide, 2-3 meters long) are made to further protect the nursery from flooding.
The elevated bed are useful for containing compost in the planting area. The beds are filled with a thin (2 inches) layer of dry compost. Excessive animal manure is avoided to keep acidity down. This layer provides the nutrients that the dense plant spacing will require.
Lastly, the bed is leveled off with a layer of sand (1 inch). The sand is very light and fine. This prevents the formation of a hard-caked top soil that could prevent the seedlings from emerging.
Now farmers measure lines across the beds. The lines are furrowed about 1/2-1 inch deep (depending on seed variety).
At last, we plant our seeds in the furrows. An even scattering of seeds along each line will provide the farmer with a way to estimate germination success. Gaps in the line would suggest a low germination percentage.
The beds will require shade to prevent the sand from reaching high temperatures, increasing evaporation and possibly burning the seeds. A layer of grass does the trick. If the grass is placed directly on the sand, some seeds will not manage to emerge between the blades of grass. Stones and a lattice of bamboo poles give a good (4-5 inch) gap between the covering and the seeds. Also the farmers can lift or part the grass to view the seedlings without damaging them.
When the job is done, it looks something like this...
After 2-3 weeks, the seedlings will be strong enough to be transplanted to their stations in the field. Many thanks to the farmers at Chifuchambewa who gave a perfect demonstration even as they were learning this technique for the first time.
In case some recent blog entries had you confused, we do in fact know that food is not synonymous with corn. (Though in the local language Chichewa, there is a significant overlap in common usage of the terms). Food of course is what is necessary for a person to have good health, energy, and growth. Corn alone is not sufficient. Beans go a long way toward fulfilling the spectrum of nutrients required for a balanced diet. Beans contain high levels of proteins, especially those lacking in rice and maize.
The seeds loaned out for our beans seed-bank at Chibanzi are now producing fruit. Farmers began the harvest this month, yielding around 33 times the weight of the seed. The 6 kilograms of seed per farmer is coming in at 200 kilograms of harvest. Another way to look at it is that on average each bean planted produces 33 beans at harvest.
Another aspect of a good diet, often overlooked, is the role of appetizers (and I don't mean deep-fried tidbits you eat before dinner). Appetizers are ingredients that make food taste good. Some of the best appetizers are energy packed foods like sugar, butter, and oil. But these are usually expensive. Easily grown, onions have strong flavour. While their energy and nutrient content is mostly washed out by the common practice of boiling or frying, they do taste good. The good taste in tern promotes good appetites. And having a balanced diet on the plate is one thing, but eating sufficient quantities of a balanced diet is something else. For the sick, young, elderly (i.e. those most vulnerable to malnutrition), making food taste good is as important as any other aspect of the dish.
The onion nurseries pictured here will play a big role in making sure no one suffers malnutrition or hunger at Chibanzi this year.